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Central nervous system

Central Nervous System Diseases

The Central Nervous System constitutes the most complex and advanced structure of the living world. It is the material support of knowledge and experience and plays a major role in the completion and control of all physical functions. It comprises the brain and the spinal cord.

Depression is the most common psychic disorder. Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. It constitutes one of the most frequent medical problems of primary health care.

According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimations, in 2020 depression will be the second leading cause of death and infirmity globally.

Schizophrenia affects 1-1.5% of the population. It mainly appears in the early years (average age for men: 20 years old, average age for women: 30 years old).

The disease rarely appears before the age of 10 or after the age of 40. The patients are unable of having a normal productive life.

In Greece, an epidemiological study in a random sample of general adult population demonstrated prevalence of schizophrenia ranging to 1.2%.

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. 
Alzheimer's disease is incurable and fatal, accounting for 60% to 70% of dementia cases. An estimated 26.6 million people had Alzheimer's worldwide in 2006, and that number could more than quadruple by 2050. In developed countries, Alzheimer's is one of the most costly diseases in society.

The disease is more common in people of advanced age. The incidence of the disease varies with age: every five years after the age of 65, the risk of the disease is approximately doubled. There are also gender differences. Women are at higher risk for Alzheimer's, especially in populations over 85

Parkinson's disease is a slowly evolving, degenerative brain disease.
It is considered the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease.
The incidence of the disease increases over time so that over the age of 65 it occurs in about 1% -2% of the population.

The average duration of the disease is about 13 years, reflecting a very significant social and economic burden.

Neuropathetic pain is a pain perceived by ectopic sensory fibres of the peripheral or central nervous system.

In opposition to (common) nociceptive pain, it remains after the healing of the initial damage or injury.

Epilepsy is a condition caused by excessive and paroxysmal discharge of brain neurons resulting to sudden, temporary and repetitive disorders of the conscience and of various physical and psychic and mental functions.

The term “epilepsy” does not refer to a disease but to different clinical manifestations with eventually different causes.

 

Bibliography:

    • Ταξινόμηση ICD – 10 Ψυχικών διαταραχών και διαταραχών της συμπεριφοράς, Κ. Στεφανής, Κ. Σολδάτος, Β. Μαυρέας, Εκδόσεις Βήτα, (Classification ICD – 10 Psychicdisorders and behavioral disorders, K. Stefanis, K. Soldatos, B. Mavreas, Vita Editions)
    • ΓκαμπαπεντίνηκαιΝευροπαθητικόςπόνος, MG Serpel –L Williams, 2004, Science Press, (Gabapentin and Neuropathetic pain, MG Serpel –L Williams, 2004, Science Press)
    • Νευρολογίαεπιτομήθεωρίαςκαιπράξης 2003, Δ. Βασιλόπουλος, Ιατρικές εκδόσεις Πασχαλίδης, (Neurology, Epitome of theory and practice 2003, D. Vassilopoulos, Medical editions Paschalidis)
    • ΣύγγραμμαΨυχιατρικής, Κ. Σολδάτος- Λ. Λυκούρας, Εκδόσεις Βήτα, 2006, (Writing of Psychiatry, K. Soldatos, L. Lykouras, Vita Editions, 2006)
    • Ψυχιατρική, Ν. Χριστοδούλου και συνεργάτες, Εκδόσεις Βήτα, 2006, (Psychiatry, N. Christodoulou and collaborators, Vita Editions, 2006)

The LANCET handbook of Treatment in Neurology,Edited by Charles Warlow,2006. Elsevier Ltd

International Health Organizations:

European Psychiatric Association

American Psychiatric Association

European Neurological Society

Alzheimer's Association: Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

American Neurological Association

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