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Central nervous system

Central Nervous System Diseases

The Central Nervous System constitutes the most complex and advanced structure of the living world. It is the material support of knowledge and experience and plays a major role in the completion and control of all physical functions. It comprises the brain and the spinal cord.

Depression is the most common psychic disorder. Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. It constitutes one of the most frequent medical problems of primary health care.

According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimations, in 2020 depression will be the second leading cause of death and infirmity globally.

Schizophrenia affects 1-1.5% of the population. It mainly appears in the early years (average age for men: 20 years old, average age for women: 30 years old).

The disease rarely appears before the age of 10 or after the age of 40. The patients are unable of having a normal productive life.

In Greece, an epidemiological study in a random sample of general adult population demonstrated prevalence of schizophrenia ranging to 1.2%.

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Today it is estimated that 18 million people worldwide have AD and that in the next 20 years the prevalence of the disease will double.

In the United States, 5-10% of people older than 65 have AD. In 1992 4 million people had AD with an estimated care giving cost of 90 billion USD.

In Greece, 9% of people older than 70 have dementia, while 6% have AD, according to a door-to-door epidemiological study conducted in the region of Pylea, Thessaloniki. It is estimated that in a few years, the total number of patients with dementia will be 200.000.

Neuropathetic pain is a pain perceived by ectopic sensory fibres of the peripheral or central nervous system.

In opposition to (common) nociceptive pain, it remains after the healing of the initial damage or injury.

Epilepsy is a condition caused by excessive and paroxysmal discharge of brain neurons resulting to sudden, temporary and repetitive disorders of the conscience and of various physical and psychic and mental functions.

The term “epilepsy” does not refer to a disease but to different clinical manifestations with eventually different causes.

Migraine

is a familial paroxysmal neurological disorder characterized by spontaneous or triggered attacks of headache that are variably associated with:

  • autonomic disturbance (nausea, pallor)
  • heightened sensitivity to external stimuli (light, noise, odour)
  • neurological symptoms
  • alteration in mood (anxiety, depression)

Bibliography:

    • Ταξινόμηση ICD – 10 Ψυχικών διαταραχών και διαταραχών της συμπεριφοράς, Κ. Στεφανής, Κ. Σολδάτος, Β. Μαυρέας, Εκδόσεις Βήτα, (Classification ICD – 10 Psychicdisorders and behavioral disorders, K. Stefanis, K. Soldatos, B. Mavreas, Vita Editions)
    • ΓκαμπαπεντίνηκαιΝευροπαθητικόςπόνος, MG Serpel –L Williams, 2004, Science Press, (Gabapentin and Neuropathetic pain, MG Serpel –L Williams, 2004, Science Press)
    • Νευρολογίαεπιτομήθεωρίαςκαιπράξης 2003, Δ. Βασιλόπουλος, Ιατρικές εκδόσεις Πασχαλίδης, (Neurology, Epitome of theory and practice 2003, D. Vassilopoulos, Medical editions Paschalidis)
    • ΣύγγραμμαΨυχιατρικής, Κ. Σολδάτος- Λ. Λυκούρας, Εκδόσεις Βήτα, 2006, (Writing of Psychiatry, K. Soldatos, L. Lykouras, Vita Editions, 2006)
    • Ψυχιατρική, Ν. Χριστοδούλου και συνεργάτες, Εκδόσεις Βήτα, 2006, (Psychiatry, N. Christodoulou and collaborators, Vita Editions, 2006)

The LANCET handbook of Treatment in Neurology,Edited by Charles Warlow,2006. Elsevier Ltd

International Health Organizations:

European Psychiatric Association

American Psychiatric Association

European Neurological Society

Alzheimer's Association: Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

American Neurological Association

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